Daily Life in Ancient China

Ancient China, a land steeped in history and tradition, boasted a vibrant civilization that thrived for millennia. Life in ancient China revolved around family, agriculture, and adherence to philosophical principles like Confucianism and Taoism. The majority of the population were farmers, working the land to sustain their families and communities. Social structure was hierarchical, with … Read more

Zhuge Liang

Zhuge Liang (181–234), also known as Kongming, was a prominent strategist, statesman, and inventor during the Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. He served as the Chancellor of the state of Shu Han under Liu Bei, one of the warlords contending for control of China during that era. Zhuge Liang was renowned for his brilliant … Read more

Zhuang Zhou: Ancient Chinese Philosopher

Zhuang Zhou, also known as Zhuangzi, was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived during the Warring States period (around the 4th century BCE). He is the attributed author of the “Zhuangzi,” a foundational text of Daoism. Zhuangzi’s philosophy emphasizes spontaneity, naturalness, and the relativity of human values and perceptions. He is known for his parables, … Read more

Sima Qian: Father of Chinese Historiography

Sima Qian (circa 145–86 BC) was a Chinese historian, astrologer, and court scribe during the Han dynasty. He is often referred to as the “Grand Historian” for his monumental work, “Records of the Grand Historian” (Shiji), which is considered one of the most important works of Chinese historiography. Sima Qian’s meticulous research, narrative skill, and … Read more

Sun Tzu: Chinese General and Strategist

Sun Tzu (544–496 BC) was a Chinese military strategist, philosopher, and author of “The Art of War,” an influential ancient Chinese military treatise. Little is known about his life, but his teachings on strategy, tactics, and leadership have had a profound impact not only in military contexts but also in business, politics, and everyday life. … Read more

Kangxi Emperor

The Kangxi Emperor (1654-1722) was the fourth emperor of the Qing Dynasty in China, ruling from 1661 to 1722. His birth name was Xuanye. Kangxi is renowned for his long and prosperous reign, characterized by economic stability, cultural achievements, and military successes. He was an adept ruler, consolidating Qing control over China, Taiwan, and Mongolia. … Read more


Mencius, also known as Mengzi, was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived during the Warring States period (c. 372–289 BCE). A key figure in Confucianism, Mencius further developed and refined the teachings of Confucius. He emphasized the innate goodness of human nature, asserting that individuals could cultivate their moral character through education and self-reflection. Mencius … Read more


Laozi, also known as Lao Tzu, is a legendary figure in Chinese philosophy and is traditionally attributed as the founder of Taoism. The historical details of his life are shrouded in legend and myth. According to tradition, Laozi lived in ancient China during the 6th century BCE. He is best known for his authorship of … Read more


Confucius (551-479 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher and teacher whose ideas have profoundly shaped East Asian culture and philosophy. Known as Kongzi (Master Kong) in Chinese, he emphasized ethical and moral values, advocating for social harmony through principles like filial piety, loyalty, and respect for authority. His teachings, compiled in the Analects, stressed the importance … Read more